Terminology

Participle

participle | ˈpɑːtɪsɪp(ə)l, pɑːˈtɪsɪp(ə)l | noun Grammar

a word formed from a verb (e.g. going, gone, being, been) and used as an adjective (e.g. working woman, burnt toast) or a noun (e.g. good breeding). In English participles are also used to make compound verb forms (e.g. is going, has been). Compare with gerund.

There are different versions of Participles in the English language:

Present participle

Adding ing to the base form of a verb creates the present participle. Eating, Jumping, etc. The present participle can be used as an adjective that modifies nouns: "the running total is $12", or "a rallying cry erupted."

Past participle

Adding ed (in most cases) to the base form of a verb creates the past participle. Like the present participle, they too can modify nouns: "She found the damaged bicycle in the creek."

Perfect participle

A combination of the word having and the past participle, we create the perfect participle: "Having fallen from her bike twice yesterday, she did not feel like riding today."

On learning a new Language

Learning a language seems infinitely hard at the beginning. And then it feels something like infinity - 1 less hard as time goes on. Still, it's one of the most rewarding things I have picked up in the last year.

I often stopped myself from starting, knowing that it would be a long journey to match my expectations, which in itself, was discouraging.

But, I have found a lot of joy in day to day practice. End goals are important, but being surprised by my own progress has been a strong motivator.

One of the side effects of learning a new language is nurturing an interest in language as a whole. You are faced with phrases like "infinitive" or "prepoposition" and realize you haven't thought about what those words mean or what they do since you were in your first few years of school (and even then, I have few memories of studying the constructs of language for more than a class or two).

On Idioms

Many meanings are found near-universally and are demonstrated in similar figures of speech. One of these expressions has to do with happiness. According to Dobrovol’skij and Piirainen (2006) in their article titled “Cultural Knowledge and Idioms,” the idea of “being extremely happy due to something good happening” is found in many languages(p. 33). In English,the expressions “be on cloud nine” and “be in seventh heaven” are used. The Lithuanian expression is “be in the ninth heaven.” In German, the expressions “be on cloud seven” and “be in the seventh heaven” are used (Dobrovol’skij & Piirainen, 2006, p. 33). Each of these expressions conveys the meaning involving the idea that happiness relates to going up.

[...] So how did the same conceptual metaphor emerge then in these diverse languages? The best answer seems to be that there is some “universal bodily experience” that led to its emergence. Lakoff and Johnson argued early that English has the metaphor because when we are happy, we tend to be physically up, moving around, be active, jump up and down, smile (i.e., turn up the corners of the mouth), rather than down, inactive, and static, and so forth. These are undoubtedly universal experiences associated with happiness (or more precisely, joy), and they are likely to produce potentially universal (or near-universal) conceptual metaphors. The emergence of a potentially universal conceptual metaphor does not, of course, mean that the linguistic expressions themselves will be the same in different languages that possess a particular conceptual metaphor (Barcelona 2000, Maalej 2004).

Zoltán Kövecses: Metaphor and Culture